大会邀请报告


  1. R. Williams: The nova outburst
  2. 王青德:Galaxy feedback and evolution
  3. 郭新:Planetary nebulae: their  evolution and role in the universe(含香港天文学介绍)
  4. 王建民:超大质量黑洞的宇宙学演化
  5. 傅燕宁:天体力学理论研究中的两个重要问题
  6. 唐正宏:现代大望远镜中的天体测量支撑系统
  7. 孙小淳:陶寺遗址考古天文学研究新进展
  8. 王力帆:南极Dome A宇宙学巡天

The Nova Outburst
Dr. Robert Williams
Space Telescope Science Institute
Baltimore   USA

ABSTRACT:  Spectroscopic observations of novae date back 100 years, and the fundamental nature of the outburst has been understood for 50 years.  Yet, recent observations suggest possible major modifications to the standard nova picture.  High resolution spectra of novae have revealed short-lived heavy element absorption systems near maximum light consisting of Fe-peak and s-process elements.  The absorbing gas is circumbinary and it must pre-exist the outburst.  Its origin appears to be mass ejection from the secondary star, implying large episodic mass transfer events from the secondary that initiate the nova outburst.  The spectroscopic evolution of novae is interpreted in terms of two distinct interacting gas systems in which the bright continuum is produced by the outburst ejecta but absorption and emission lines originate in gas ejected by the secondary star in a way that may explain dust formation and X-ray emission from novae.

Galaxy feedback and evolution
王青德
 
Galactic feedback plays an essential role in shaping the formation and evolution of galaxies. Only stars synthesize metals. Yet only about half of the generated elements have been observed in stars and the interstellar medium. Galaxies are also missing their share of baryonic matter; and the energy needed to separate baryons and dark matter is substantial. These are some of the key issues that we are addressing, both observationally and theoretically. I will review recent progresses and remaining problems in understanding the feedback processes in and around intermediate-mass galaxies, including our Milky Way galaxy. In particular, I will discuss the role of the gentle, but long-lasting feedback from old stars in the evolution of such galaxies.

Planetary nebulae: their evolution and role in the universe
郭新

Although planetary nebulae (PNe) have been known for over 200 years, a theoretical understanding of the origin and evolution of these objects only began 30 years ago.  Recent observations in the x-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, submm and mm regions show that PNe are active throughout the electromagnetic spectrum and are excellent laboratories for the study of atomic and molecular processes.  Observations by the HST have discovered FLIERS, knots, jets, arcs, rings, and point-symmetric structures that are difficult to explain.  ISO observations have discovered many inorganic and organic compounds, showing that planetary nebulae are active chemical factories in the Galaxy.  The detection of extragalactic PNe also allows them to be used as standard candles for extragalactic distance scales, probes of distribution of dark matter, as well as tools to study the dynamic history of galaxy clusters.  A modern understanding of PNe is therefore important for the study of the solar system, stellar evolution, interstellar medium, galactic structure and evolution as well as cosmology.

行星状星云:来源,演化及在宇宙内的角色

虽然行星状星云的存在早于200年前已为人所知,但是解释它们来源和演化的理论,出现了才不過40年。最近,在X-射线,紫外线,红外线,亚毫米和毫米波段的观测显示,行星状星云在整个电磁谱内都非常活跃,是研究原子和分子作用的绝佳实验室。通过哈勃太空望远镜的观测,我们发现了高速低电离放射区,亮结,喷流,弧,环,和点对称的结构,为了解行星状星云带来了新的挑戰。而红外空间天文台的观测,又发现了很多无机和有机的化合物,证明行星状星云是银河糸内活跃的化学工厂。另外,银河系外的行星状星云既可以用作测量系外距离的标准烛光,又可以成为侦测暗物质分布的探针,及研究星系团动力学历史的工具。因此,为于行星状星云找一个现代的理解,对于研究太阳系,恒星演化,星际物质,星系结构和演化,以及宇宙学都是非常重要的。

Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes and unified model of active galactic nuclei
王建民研究员
中科院高能物理所

ABSRACT: It has been generally realized that supermasive black holes (SMBHs) are coevolving with their host galaxies with episodic star formation and nuclear activities in light of the famous Magorrian relation and SMBH mass-dispersion velocity relation. A lot of progress has been made in this exciting field after combining with the bi-modal distribution of galaxies. I will give an extensive review on this coevol subjects. Furthermore, unified model of active galactic nuclei will be discussed in the scheme of the coevolution of SMBHs and galaxies. Open questions and remarkable conclusions are highlighted.

天体力学理论研究中的两个重要问题
傅燕宁
中科院紫金山天文台

天体力学研究天体的运动规律。天体运动学观测精度的提高和对象的增加,以及邻近学科的发展和实际应用的需求,拓展了天体力学的研究领域。建立高精度或具有统计意义的各类天体的动力系统模型、根据观测确定模型参数,并用以解释观测现象、发展天文学理论或服务各种应用工程项目是目前天体力学的主要研究内容,而上述研究的共同基础是对天体系统动力学演化的通有规律的了解。
为了深入这种规律,天体力学研究者经常采用的是经典的N体问题模型。因为天体间的万有引力作用是决定大多数天体系统动力学演化的主要因素,所以有关研究成果也直接有助于定性解释一些天文观测现象。
本报告拟简单介绍天体力学定性理论研究中的下述两个经典难题,以及我们最近完成的两项有具体天文背景的相关研究工作:
 N-体系统稳定性 /  甄别即将瓦解的三星系统
 N-体中心构形的个数和形状 / 定性理解海王星的环弧结构
 
现代特殊望远镜中天体测量支持
上海天文台
唐正宏

为满足天文学研究发展的新要求,各种不同结构、不同工作模式的望远镜设计方案被提出。鉴于建造和安装的可行性考虑,在望远镜的结构方面会采取一些特殊措施,而这些措施往往使得望远镜的工作模式变得更复杂和困难。天体测量支持系统就是为解决这些特殊望远镜的工作模式方面的困难而提出的。作为天体测量应用的新领域,天体测量支持系统以现代天体测量理论体系为基础,对相关工程提供合作支持。本报告以LAMOST、世界第一架月基望远镜LOT等工程为例,介绍天体测量支持系统的概念和作用,并对其未来应用前景作了展望。

陶寺遗址考古天文学研究新进展
孙小淳研究员
自然科学史研究所

报告课题研究的最新进展。 探讨中国最古老的天文台遗迹--陶寺史前天文台遗迹的天 文功能。12个日出方位点揭示了该天文台观测日出定季节的天文历法功能。另一条指向 线可能同观测月亮有关。 考古出土一根带有刻度的标尺, 我们初步认为是测量日影的 圭表。 陶寺很可能是古代圭表影长数据的最早来源。中国古代天文与社会政治密切相 关, 这一研究不仅具有天文学意义, 而且具有重要的文化意义, 涉及二十四节气的 起源、中国古代的太阳崇拜、以及中国古代“地中”观念的建立。

南极Dome A宇宙学巡天
王力帆
中国南极天文中心,紫金山天文台,美国Texas A&M大学